Binoculars Carl Zeiss Jena D.F.95 Armee Modell+

Magnification: 8x
Aperture (objective diameter): 20 mm
Field of View: 4.6 °
Visible field of view (eyepiece FOV ): 36.8 °
Most close focusing distance: 6.5 m
Width: 14.9 cm
Height: 12 cm
Weight: 625 g
Production date: 1905

   Military models of binoculars appeared in Carl Zeiss catalogs in August 1895 – those were O.D.F.95 (Offiziers-Doppelfernrohr 95) with 6x magnification   and D.F.95 (Doppelfernrohr 95) with 8x magnification. However, there are suggestions that first prototypes of these binoculars were produced before 1893, as they had to undergo a long military acceptance (Artillerie Prüfungs kommission - APK). In 1902 these two binoculars were replaced by D.F.6x and D.F.8x, which acquired some modifications.
   The binoculars Armee Modell Vergr.= 8 is an analogue of binoculars D.F95, or to be more precise – of D.F.8x The German government forbade military binoculars export until 1898, but later the forbiddance was cancelled and binoculars called Armeefeldstecher and Armee Modell were supplied to many countries around the world and to Switzerland in particular. The binoculars have curved design of upper prism covers, called “bent shoulders”. Until now, there is no explanation for such covers’ shape, according to one hypothesis – that was made for better raindrops dripping, according to another one – it was a distinction from 4x, 6x and 8x civilian binoculars models, also produced at that time.
   The clamping screw for adjusting the binoculars interpupillary distance has the design of a second, later type (see Hans T.Seeger. Zeiss-Feldstecher, Handfernglaser von 1894-1919, Modelle-Merkmale-Mythos, p.177), the eyepiece lenses’ diameter is 11 mm (9 mm for DF95), although the range of vision for both binoculars is the same - 4.6°. The eyepieces’ base diameter is 20.5 mm (18.5 mm for D.F.95). The "3/3" type eyepieces are with a diopter scale (since 1902) (see Hans T.Seeger. Zeiss-Feldstecher, Handfernglaser von 1894-1919, Modelle-Merkmale-Mythos, pp. 180-181).
   The binoculars frame hinge is attached to its halves with the help of 5 screws from each side. The upper and lower prism covers are made of brass; the device has long “lugs” for a jugular strap, which are attached to binoculars with the help of 2 screws. It is the 3rd (later) type’s upper hinge disk, which has an interpupillary distance scale (see Hans T.Seeger. Zeiss-Feldstecher, Handfernglaser von 1894-1919, Modelle-Merkmale-Mythos, p. 77). The disc has an inscription "858" – it is the Switzerland army’s number of military acceptance.
   The inscriptions on the left prism cover “1905 Carl Zeiss, Jena. Pat. +7791” mean the production date and the Swiss patent number of October 30, 1893, which refers to Ernst Abbe’s German patent of July 9, 1893. There is also an inscription on the right prism cover - "Armee Modell Vergr.=8". Army model Magnification 8x. The last inscription means that the binoculars were produced exclusively for export (to Switzerland in particular, which is proved by the "cross" image). The inscription is made in italic with the help of white alloy (silver?).
   The binoculars coffer was produced in Switzerland (there are corresponding stamps - see photo), it has characteristic features of military use: a wide fastening loop for a waist belt, massive sidelong coffer belt fastening loops, the built-in compass remains. There are two compartments for light filters and one compartment for a spare eye-cover inside the coffer.
   The serial number of the binoculars is “11436”, it was produced in 1905.